Question 1

For each of the research topics listed below, indicate the type of nonexperimental approach that would be most useful and explain why.

1. Pushing ahead in line

2. Daydreaming

3. Locating the most popular painting in an art gallery

4. Studiousness in college students

5. Determining whether a particular patient has improved with psychotherapy.

Question 2

List the main sections (and subsections) of a research report.

Question 3

Compare and contrast the following terms: (a) test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability, (b) content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity, and (c) internal validity with external validity. ·

Question 4

Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step.

Question 5

When designing survey questions, how would you control for each of the following response styles:

(a) willingness to answer,

(b) position preference, and

(c) yea- or nay-saying?

Question 6

Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions:

1. What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? Explain.

2. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.

3. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain.

4. What type of scale is used when the variables studied are low and normal birth weights of newborns? Explain.

Question 7

Contrast experimental with quasi-experimental methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?

Question 8

When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?

Question 9

Researcher Sandy Beach found a correlation coefficient of +2.3 between variables X and Y. She is thrilled because that correlation is “like, way high.” She also feels that this answer “proves that X is like, causing Y.” What are three problems with Sandy’s conclusions?

Question 10

Contrast probability and nonprobability sampling methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?


Question 1

For each of the following examples, explain whether the researcher has made a correct decision or has made a Type 1 or Type 2 error. Explain why.
  1. Dr. G rejects the null hypothesis although the independent variable had no effect.
  2. Dr. R rejects the null hypothesis when it is false.
  3. Although the independent variable had an effect, Dr. E does not reject the null hypothesis

.Question 2

Explain the value of reversal designs (ABA designs) in single-case research.

Question 3

explain how a one-way analysis of variance works. How do you use between- and within-group variability?
Question 4
After watching nursery-school children, Ken Garoo wants to test the hypothesis that some toys are more fun to play with than others. He decides to compare “fun” toys (blocks) with “unfun” toys (stuffed animals). He also wishes to see if there is a sex difference, as well, so sex is added as an independent variable. A) What kind of design is needed? B) Diagram it out. C) Assuming 20 subjects are needed per cell, how many subjects are needed for this study?
Question 5
Bill Board is “lording” his SAT score over his friend, Rhoda Dendron, who took the ACT. “You only got a 25 in math,” he chortled, “while I got a 300 in math.” Given that the SAT has a μ of 500 and a σ of 100, and the ACT has a μ of 20 and a σ of 5, what is wrong with Bill’s logic (give the answer in both z scores and percentile ranks)
Question 6
Describe a two-matched groups design. How is the matching done?
Question 7
Chuck Wagon is very excited about the within-subjects approach. “Now I’ll never need to run large numbers of subjects again,” he says. However, Chuck has forgotten that within-subjects designs may be a) useless, b) impossible, c) confounded by order effects, or d) impractical when excessive subject time spent in an experiment makes data inaccurate. Give an example of each of these four objections.
Question 8

 A researcher has studied subjects’ ability to learn to translate words into Morse code. He has experimented with two treatment conditions: in one condition, the subjects are given massed practice; they spend 8 full hours on the task. In the other condition, subjects are given distributed practice; they also spend 8 hours, but their practice is spread over four days, practicing 2 hours at a time. After the practice, all subjects are given a test message to encode; the dependent variable is the number of errors made. The researcher has matched the subjects on intelligence. The results are in the following table. Decide which statistical test would be appropriate, carry out the test, and evaluate the outcome. Assume a significance level of .05 and that the direction of the outcome has not been predicted.

Question 9

Explain the pros and cons of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential designs.

Question 10

Define the term quasi-experiment and discuss the pros and cons of this research method.

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